STATE AT A GLANCE

Tamil Nadu is one of the 35 states of India. It lies on the eastern coast of the southern Indian peninsula bordered by Puducherry , Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiris, the Annamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west, Bay of Bengal in the east, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait in the south east and Indian Ocean in the south.

Tamil Nadu is the homeland of the Tamilians and has existed since prehistoric times. The culture and artwork of this region are considered to be some of the oldest in the world. It is home to one of the classical languages of World, Tamil. The language has been documented as being around for at least 5,000 years in the form scrpt and but was spoken long before that. Tamil Nadu also has one of the oldest culinary heritages in the world.

It is one of the foremost states in the country in terms of overall development. One of the most industrialized and urbanized states in India, it is home to many natural resources, rare flora and fauna, cool hill stations, grand Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and three UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km² and is the eleventh largest state in India. Tamil Nadu has a coastline of about 1000 km which forms about 18% of the country’s coastline (third longest). The 32 districts of Tamil Nadu are listed below:-

1. Ariyalur 2. Chennai 3. Coimbatore 4. Cuddalore
5. Dharmapuri 6. Dindigul 7. Erode 8. Kancheepuram
9. Kanyakumari 10. Karur 11. Krishnagiri 12. Madurai
13. Nagapattinam 14. Namakkal 15. Perambalur 16. Pudukottai
17. Ramanathapuram 18. Salem 19. Sivaganga 20. Thanjavur
21. The Nilgiris 22. Theni 23. Thiruvallur 24. Thiruvannamalai
25. Thiruvarur 26. Thirunelveli 27. Tiruppur 28. Trichirappalli
29. Tuticorin 30. Vellore 31. Villupuram 32. Virudhunagar

According to Census 2011, the state's population is 72 million. It is the seventh most populous state in the country. Except for Kerala, Tamilnadu recorded the lowest population growth rate in 1991-2001 among all the states and Union territories in India. The decadal (2001-2011) growth rate is 15.60 percent. The population sex ratio, defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population, works out to 995 in 2011 compared to 987 in 2001 and 974 in 1991. However, the child sex ratio, defined as the number of girls per 1000 boys in the age group of 0-6 years, has gone up from 942 in 2001 to 946 in 2011. The density of the population is 555 persons per sq. km in 2011 against 478 in 2001 and 429 in 1991. Life expectancy is projected to be 65.2 years for males and 67.6 years for females.

Tamilnadu is today the most urbanized state in India with 43 percent of the population living in urban areas. Tamilnadu’s urban slum population in 2001 census is 2.9 million, which is 10.6% of the total urban population of the State. More than 30% of Chennai’s population lives in slums.

The population of Scheduled Castes (SCs) is 19% in 2001 against 19.2% in 1991, higher than the national percentage of 16.2 in 2001 and 16.3 in 1991. However, Tamilnadu has a lower percentage of Scheduled Tribes (ST) 1% of the state’s population ¬ in 2001 against the national average of 8.2 %.

Tamilnadu is one of the educationally more advanced states in the country. The literacy rate stands at 80.3 percent (male literacy 86.8 % and female literacy 73.9 %), higher than the national literacy rate of 74.0 %.

As per the Human Development Index prepared by the State Planning Commission, the districts that fare well in terms of both HDI and Gender Development Index (GDI) are Chennai, Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi, Kancheepuram, Coimbatore and the Nilgiris. The poorly performing districts include Pudukottai, Thiruvannamalai, Villupuram and Dharmapuri.

Population Profile by Districts

Sl. No. Districts Population (2011) Sex Ratio (2011) Child Sex Ratio (2011)
1 Ariyalur 752481 1016 892
2 Chennai 4681087 986 964
3 Coimbatore 3472578 1001 963
4 Cuddalore 2600880 984 895
5 Dharmapuri 1502900 946 911
6 Dindigul 2161367 998 942
7 Erode 2259608 992 956
8 Kancheepuram 3990897 985 967
9 Kanyakumari 1863174 1014 961
10 Karur 1076588 1015 946
11 Krishnagiri 1883731 956 924
12 Madurai 3041038 990 939
13 Nagapattinam 1614069 1025 961
14 Namakkal 1721179 986 913
15 Perambalur 564511 1006 913
16 Pudukottai 1618725 1015 959
17 Ramanathapuram 1337560 977 967
18 Salem  3480008 954 917
19 Sivagangai 1341250 1000 961
20 Thanjavur 2402781 1031 957
21 The Nilgiris 735071 1041 982
22 Theni 1243684 990 937
23 Thiruvallur 3725697 983 954
24 Thiruvarur 1268094 1,020 962
25 Thoothukudi 1738376 1024 970
26 Tiruchirapalli 2713858 1013 952
27 Tirunelveli 3072880 1024 964
28 Tiruppur 2471222 988 951
29 Tiruvannamalai 2468965 993 932
30 Vellore 3928106 1004 944
31 Villupuram 3463284 985 938
32 Virudhunagar 1943309 1009 962
  TAMIL NADU 68515977 987 942

Demographic Particulars (Census, 2011)

Area (Sq. Kms) 130058
Districts 32
Taluks 220
Community Development Blocks 385
Gram Panchayaths 12618
Revenue Villages 17244
Town Panchayaths 561
Municipalities 125
Municipal Corporations 10
Cantonments 2
Population 72138958
Males 31400909
Females 31004770
Rural (%) 73.9
Urban (%) 26.1
Scheduled Castes (%) 19.0
Scheduled Tribes (%) 1.0
Elderly Population (60+ years) (%) 8.8
Young people (10-24 years) (%) 28.8
Decadal Growth Rate, 1991-2001 (%) 11.7
Population density (per sq. km) 480
Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males) 987
Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years) (girls per 1000 boys) 942
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