STATE AT A GLANCE
Tamil Nadu is one of the 35 states of India. It lies on the eastern coast of the southern Indian peninsula bordered by Puducherry , Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiris, the Annamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west, Bay of Bengal in the east, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait in the south east and Indian Ocean in the south.
Tamil Nadu is the homeland of the Tamilians and has existed since prehistoric times. The culture and artwork of this region are considered to be some of the oldest in the world. It is home to one of the classical languages of World, Tamil. The language has been documented as being around for at least 5,000 years in the form scrpt and but was spoken long before that. Tamil Nadu also has one of the oldest culinary heritages in the world.
According to Census 2011, the state's population is 72 million. It is the seventh most populous state in the country. Except for Kerala, Tamilnadu recorded the lowest population growth rate in 1991-2001 among all the states and Union territories in India. The decadal (2001-2011) growth rate is 15.60 percent. The population sex ratio, defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population, works out to 995 in 2011 compared to 987 in 2001 and 974 in 1991. However, the child sex ratio, defined as the number of girls per 1000 boys in the age group of 0-6 years, has gone up from 942 in 2001 to 946 in 2011. The density of the population is 555 persons per sq. km in 2011 against 478 in 2001 and 429 in 1991. Life expectancy is projected to be 65.2 years for males and 67.6 years for females.
Tamilnadu is today the most urbanized state in India with 43 percent of the population living in urban areas. Tamilnadu’s urban slum population in 2001 census is 2.9 million, which is 10.6% of the total urban population of the State. More than 30% of Chennai’s population lives in slums.
The population of Scheduled Castes (SCs) is 19% in 2001 against 19.2% in 1991, higher than the national percentage of 16.2 in 2001 and 16.3 in 1991. However, Tamilnadu has a lower percentage of Scheduled Tribes (ST) 1% of the state’s population ¬ in 2001 against the national average of 8.2 %.
Tamilnadu is one of the educationally more advanced states in the country. The literacy rate stands at 80.3 percent (male literacy 86.8 % and female literacy 73.9 %), higher than the national literacy rate of 74.0 %.
As per the Human Development Index prepared by the State Planning Commission, the districts that fare well in terms of both HDI and Gender Development Index (GDI) are Chennai, Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi, Kancheepuram, Coimbatore and the Nilgiris. The poorly performing districts include Pudukottai, Thiruvannamalai, Villupuram and Dharmapuri.
Population Profile by Districts
Demographic Particulars (Census, 2011)